Effective training is needed for employees and managers to improve their skills and improve in their job performance. Training and development processes and requirements are supported by various theories.
The reinforcement theory suggests that employees are often motivated to commit themselves to organizational objectives and performance due to past outcomes that resulted from their behaviours. This can either be positive or negative. In training and development, this theory is necessary for trainers to note the kind of outcomes which are positive or negative for learners so as to master knowledge, alter behaviour or transform skills.
Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory suggests that people or leaders learn by observing the models or examples of other people whom they consider knowledgeable, competent and credible. Therefore, training and development should be supported with quite a number of real life examples of successful leaders such as Kyoichi Tanada.
Goal Setting Theory
Goal setting theory also suggests that human behaviour is often a result of one’s goals and objectives (Jackson, 2003). It further suggests that specific challenging goals yield better performance than unclear and unchallenging goals. Therefore, training and development can be made successful by the provision of specific challenging goals.
The needs theories hold that learning is influenced by the value one places on specific outcomes. It indicates that in order for training to result in good leadership qualities, a trainer should determine the needs of trainees and effectively communicate how these needs can be addressed in the training program content (Senior and Fleming, 2006).
The expectancy theory explains that learning becomes successful if the employees or the leaders being trained believe that they can master the content of the training learning program and that their learning process is related to their outcomes such as increased performance.