Project Management Principles – A Summary

A project is a set of activities carried out by organizations to achieve given organizational objectives. Project management is therefore the process of organizing, planning, managing and controlling an organization’s resources in order to achieve given objectives within the organization.

Project Management Principles

  • An organization’s set of tasks carried out to achieve organizational activities
  • entails all activities of managing resources to achieve organizational objectives
  • Planning, organizing, managing and controlling resources
  • Activities carried out by project management team
  • Manage resources and attain organizational objectives

Role of Project systems and procedures in project management

Project systems and procedures enable organization’s management to carry out its duties effectively. It also enables the project management team to attain its project management goals. The uncertainties associated with projects need a proper planning which is possible through a proper application of project systems and procedures. Project systems and procedures are the techniques used in project management. They are used to:

  • Manage projects and organizational activities
  • Project management team utilizes it to gain skills and experience
  • Reduce risks – Projects are associated with risks and always seem uncertain.

Role of a project manager

The team manager is the backbone of the project. He performs all managerial activities of a given project; controlling, coordinating, planning, organizing and motivating. Project managers:

  • Act as head of a project management team
  • Have superior powers and responsibilities in project management.
  • Should have experience and skills relevant to a given project.
  • Control and coordinate project activities.
  • Encourage teamwork in the project management team.
  • Provide support and develops the skills of the project team.

Project phases

Projects undergo five major phases.

1) Phase one: identification of needs

  • The first phase is like a conception stage whereby the idea of a project is conceived through identification of a certain issue, problem or need within an organization.
  • Developing a list of needs that form the basis of project management.
  • Entails identification of issues to be addressed by the project.
  • The issues or problems that organizations face should be well defined.

2) Phase two: the formulation of objectives and definition of the project

  • Phase two and phase three are still the planning stages before the project is executed.
  • They are important phases because they are the basis which is relied upon by the project execution phases.
  • The aims and the desired outcome of the project are used to define the project.

3) Phase three: detailed planning and scheduling

  • Appropriate steps to achieve project objectives are designed

4) Phase four: project activity management.

In Execution stage, the project is broken down into a series of activities and each stage of the project begins. The project management team then monitors the progress of the project against the plan. In case of any timing issue, the project management team can act accordingly.

  • This is the project’s execution stage.
  • The project is divided into series of executable tasks.
  • The project activities then starts

5) Phase 5: closure and feedback

The last closure and feedback stage is also very important for the organization to determine the success and contribution of the project towards the achievement of organizational objectives.

  • The success of the project is assessed.
  • If the project doesn’t work well, original plans may be changed.
  • The success of the project upon completion is assessed
  • Feedback is given to the sponsors.

Project termination

  • Verification of the project’s viability.
  • Acceptance by the intended people.
  • The project is evaluated to determine if it meets the need intended to address.
  • Does it get the approval of the intended people?
  • Conduct post-project assessment
  • Identify lessons learnt.
  • A group review of the project is necessary.
  • What are the lessons learnt from the project?
  • Post project review is done
  • Review and evaluation provides the historical records of the project
  • Also provides recommendations for future projects.
  • Best project activity is noted
  • The project team is appreciated in this case
  • Project records are often kept safe for future reference

Post-project appraisal

Post project appraisal as part of a project closure helps to identify the success of a project in playing a part in the achievement of organizational objectives.

  • The process used to determine the success of a project achievement .
  • Also involves determination of its compliance with the set standards
  • Tells if the project has been completed on time.
  • Guides future progress.
  • Also involves recommendations for future projects.

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